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NAME

       <math.h>: Mathematics -

   Macros
       #define M_E   2.7182818284590452354
       #define M_LOG2E   1.4426950408889634074 /* log_2 e */
       #define M_LOG10E   0.43429448190325182765    /* log_10 e */
       #define M_LN2   0.69314718055994530942  /* log_e 2 */
       #define M_LN10   2.30258509299404568402 /* log_e 10 */
       #define M_PI   3.14159265358979323846   /* pi */
       #define M_PI_2   1.57079632679489661923 /* pi/2 */
       #define M_PI_4   0.78539816339744830962 /* pi/4 */
       #define M_1_PI   0.31830988618379067154 /* 1/pi */
       #define M_2_PI   0.63661977236758134308 /* 2/pi */
       #define M_2_SQRTPI   1.12837916709551257390  /* 2/sqrt(pi) */
       #define M_SQRT2   1.41421356237309504880     /* sqrt(2) */
       #define M_SQRT1_2   0.70710678118654752440   /* 1/sqrt(2) */
       #define NAN   __builtin_nan('')
       #define INFINITY   __builtin_inf()
       #define cosf   cos
       #define sinf   sin
       #define tanf   tan
       #define fabsf   fabs
       #define fmodf   fmod
       #define sqrtf   sqrt
       #define cbrtf   cbrt
       #define hypotf   hypot
       #define squaref   square
       #define floorf   floor
       #define ceilf   ceil
       #define frexpf   frexp
       #define ldexpf   ldexp
       #define expf   exp
       #define coshf   cosh
       #define sinhf   sinh
       #define tanhf   tanh
       #define acosf   acos
       #define asinf   asin
       #define atanf   atan
       #define atan2f   atan2
       #define logf   log
       #define log10f   log10
       #define powf   pow
       #define isnanf   isnan
       #define isinff   isinf
       #define isfinitef   isfinite
       #define copysignf   copysign
       #define signbitf   signbit
       #define fdimf   fdim
       #define fmaf   fma
       #define fmaxf   fmax
       #define fminf   fmin
       #define truncf   trunc
       #define roundf   round
       #define lroundf   lround
       #define lrintf   lrint

   Functions
       double cos (double __x)
       double sin (double __x)
       double tan (double __x)
       double fabs (double __x)
       double fmod (double __x, double __y)
       double modf (double __x, double *__iptr)
       float modff (float __x, float *__iptr)
       double sqrt (double __x)
       double cbrt (double __x)
       double hypot (double __x, double __y)
       double square (double __x)
       double floor (double __x)
       double ceil (double __x)
       double frexp (double __x, int *__pexp)
       double ldexp (double __x, int __exp)
       double exp (double __x)
       double cosh (double __x)
       double sinh (double __x)
       double tanh (double __x)
       double acos (double __x)
       double asin (double __x)
       double atan (double __x)
       double atan2 (double __y, double __x)
       double log (double __x)
       double log10 (double __x)
       double pow (double __x, double __y)
       int isnan (double __x)
       int isinf (double __x)
       static int isfinite (double __x)
       static double copysign (double __x, double __y)
       int signbit (double __x)
       double fdim (double __x, double __y)
       double fma (double __x, double __y, double __z)
       double fmax (double __x, double __y)
       double fmin (double __x, double __y)
       double trunc (double __x)
       double round (double __x)
       long lround (double __x)
       long lrint (double __x)

Detailed Description

       #include <math.h>

       This header file declares basic mathematics constants and functions.

       Notes:

           · In order to access the functions declared herein, it is usually
             also required to additionally link against the library libm.a.
             See also the related FAQ entry.

           · Math functions do not raise exceptions and do not change the
             errno variable. Therefore the majority of them are declared with
             const attribute, for better optimization by GCC.

Macro Definition Documentation

   #define acosf   acos
       The alias for acos().

   #define asinf   asin
       The alias for asin().

   #define atan2f   atan2
       The alias for atan2().

   #define atanf   atan
       The alias for atan().

   #define cbrtf   cbrt
       The alias for cbrt().

   #define ceilf   ceil
       The alias for ceil().

   #define copysignf   copysign
       The alias for copysign().

   #define cosf   cos
       The alias for cos().

   #define coshf   cosh
       The alias for cosh().

   #define expf   exp
       The alias for exp().

   #define fabsf   fabs
       The alias for fabs().

   #define fdimf   fdim
       The alias for fdim().

   #define floorf   floor
       The alias for floor().

   #define fmaf   fma
       The alias for fma().

   #define fmaxf   fmax
       The alias for fmax().

   #define fminf   fmin
       The alias for fmin().

   #define fmodf   fmod
       The alias for fmod().

   #define frexpf   frexp
       The alias for frexp().

   #define hypotf   hypot
       The alias for hypot().

   #define INFINITY   __builtin_inf()
       INFINITY constant.

   #define isfinitef   isfinite
       The alias for isfinite().

   #define isinff   isinf
       The alias for isinf().

   #define isnanf   isnan
       The alias for isnan().

   #define ldexpf   ldexp
       The alias for ldexp().

   #define log10f   log10
       The alias for log10().

   #define logf   log
       The alias for log().

   #define lrintf   lrint
       The alias for lrint().

   #define lroundf   lround
       The alias for lround().

   #define M_1_PI   0.31830988618379067154 /* 1/pi */
       The constant 1/pi.

   #define M_2_PI   0.63661977236758134308 /* 2/pi */
       The constant 2/pi.

   #define M_2_SQRTPI   1.12837916709551257390  /* 2/sqrt(pi) */
       The constant 2/sqrt(pi).

   #define M_E   2.7182818284590452354
       The constant e.

   #define M_LN10   2.30258509299404568402 /* log_e 10 */
       The natural logarithm of the 10.

   #define M_LN2   0.69314718055994530942  /* log_e 2 */
       The natural logarithm of the 2.

   #define M_LOG10E   0.43429448190325182765    /* log_10 e */
       The logarithm of the e to base 10.

   #define M_LOG2E   1.4426950408889634074 /* log_2 e */
       The logarithm of the e to base 2.

   #define M_PI   3.14159265358979323846   /* pi */
       The constant pi.

   #define M_PI_2   1.57079632679489661923 /* pi/2 */
       The constant pi/2.

   #define M_PI_4   0.78539816339744830962 /* pi/4 */
       The constant pi/4.

   #define M_SQRT1_2   0.70710678118654752440   /* 1/sqrt(2) */
       The constant 1/sqrt(2).

   #define M_SQRT2   1.41421356237309504880     /* sqrt(2) */
       The square root of 2.

   #define NAN   __builtin_nan('')
       NAN constant.

   #define powf   pow
       The alias for pow().

   #define roundf   round
       The alias for round().

   #define signbitf   signbit
       The alias for signbit().

   #define sinf   sin
       The alias for sin().

   #define sinhf   sinh
       The alias for sinh().

   #define sqrtf   sqrt
       The alias for sqrt().

   #define squaref   square
       The alias for square().

   #define tanf   tan
       The alias for tan().

   #define tanhf   tanh
       The alias for tanh().

   #define truncf   trunc
       The alias for trunc().

Function Documentation

   double acos (double__x)
       The acos() function computes the principal value of the arc cosine of
       __x. The returned value is in the range [0, pi] radians. A domain error
       occurs for arguments not in the range [-1, +1].

   double asin (double__x)
       The asin() function computes the principal value of the arc sine of
       __x. The returned value is in the range [-pi/2, pi/2] radians. A domain
       error occurs for arguments not in the range [-1, +1].

   double atan (double__x)
       The atan() function computes the principal value of the arc tangent of
       __x. The returned value is in the range [-pi/2, pi/2] radians.

   double atan2 (double__y, double__x)
       The atan2() function computes the principal value of the arc tangent of
       __y / __x, using the signs of both arguments to determine the quadrant
       of the return value. The returned value is in the range [-pi, +pi]
       radians.

   double cbrt (double__x)
       The cbrt() function returns the cube root of __x.

   double ceil (double__x)
       The ceil() function returns the smallest integral value greater than or
       equal to __x, expressed as a floating-point number.

   static double copysign (double__x, double__y) [static]
       The copysign() function returns __x but with the sign of __y. They work
       even if __x or __y are NaN or zero.

   double cos (double__x)
       The cos() function returns the cosine of __x, measured in radians.

   double cosh (double__x)
       The cosh() function returns the hyperbolic cosine of __x.

   double exp (double__x)
       The exp() function returns the exponential value of __x.

   double fabs (double__x)
       The fabs() function computes the absolute value of a floating-point
       number __x.

   double fdim (double__x, double__y)
       The fdim() function returns max(__x - __y, 0). If __x or __y or both
       are NaN, NaN is returned.

   double floor (double__x)
       The floor() function returns the largest integral value less than or
       equal to __x, expressed as a floating-point number.

   double fma (double__x, double__y, double__z)
       The fma() function performs floating-point multiply-add. This is the
       operation (__x * __y) + __z, but the intermediate result is not rounded
       to the destination type. This can sometimes improve the precision of a
       calculation.

   double fmax (double__x, double__y)
       The fmax() function returns the greater of the two values __x and __y.
       If an argument is NaN, the other argument is returned. If both
       arguments are NaN, NaN is returned.

   double fmin (double__x, double__y)
       The fmin() function returns the lesser of the two values __x and __y.
       If an argument is NaN, the other argument is returned. If both
       arguments are NaN, NaN is returned.

   double fmod (double__x, double__y)
       The function fmod() returns the floating-point remainder of __x / __y.

   double frexp (double__x, int *__pexp)
       The frexp() function breaks a floating-point number into a normalized
       fraction and an integral power of 2. It stores the integer in the int
       object pointed to by __pexp.

       If __x is a normal float point number, the frexp() function returns the
       value v, such that v has a magnitude in the interval [1/2, 1) or zero,
       and __x equals v times 2 raised to the power __pexp. If __x is zero,
       both parts of the result are zero. If __x is not a finite number, the
       frexp() returns __x as is and stores 0 by __pexp.

       Note:
           This implementation permits a zero pointer as a directive to skip a
           storing the exponent.

   double hypot (double__x, double__y)
       The hypot() function returns sqrt(__x*__x + __y*__y). This is the
       length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with sides of length __x
       and __y, or the distance of the point (__x, __y) from the origin. Using
       this function instead of the direct formula is wise, since the error is
       much smaller. No underflow with small __x and __y. No overflow if
       result is in range.

   static int isfinite (double__x) [static]
       The isfinite() function returns a nonzero value if __x is finite: not
       plus or minus infinity, and not NaN.

   int isinf (double__x)
       The function isinf() returns 1 if the argument __x is positive
       infinity, -1 if __x is negative infinity, and 0 otherwise.

       Note:
           The GCC 4.3 can replace this function with inline code that returns
           the 1 value for both infinities (gcc bug #35509).

   int isnan (double__x)
       The function isnan() returns 1 if the argument __x represents a 'not-a-
       number' (NaN) object, otherwise 0.

   double ldexp (double__x, int__exp)
       The ldexp() function multiplies a floating-point number by an integral
       power of 2. It returns the value of __x times 2 raised to the power
       __exp.

   double log (double__x)
       The log() function returns the natural logarithm of argument __x.

   double log10 (double__x)
       The log10() function returns the logarithm of argument __x to base 10.

   long lrint (double__x)
       The lrint() function rounds __x to the nearest integer, rounding the
       halfway cases to the even integer direction. (That is both 1.5 and 2.5
       values are rounded to 2). This function is similar to rint() function,
       but it differs in type of return value and in that an overflow is
       possible.

       Returns:
           The rounded long integer value. If __x is not a finite number or an
           overflow was, this realization returns the LONG_MIN value
           (0x80000000).

   long lround (double__x)
       The lround() function rounds __x to the nearest integer, but rounds
       halfway cases away from zero (instead of to the nearest even integer).
       This function is similar to round() function, but it differs in type of
       return value and in that an overflow is possible.

       Returns:
           The rounded long integer value. If __x is not a finite number or an
           overflow was, this realization returns the LONG_MIN value
           (0x80000000).

   double modf (double__x, double *__iptr)
       The modf() function breaks the argument __x into integral and
       fractional parts, each of which has the same sign as the argument. It
       stores the integral part as a double in the object pointed to by
       __iptr.

       The modf() function returns the signed fractional part of __x.

       Note:
           This implementation skips writing by zero pointer. However, the GCC
           4.3 can replace this function with inline code that does not permit
           to use NULL address for the avoiding of storing.

   float modff (float__x, float *__iptr)
       The alias for modf().

   double pow (double__x, double__y)
       The function pow() returns the value of __x to the exponent __y.

   double round (double__x)
       The round() function rounds __x to the nearest integer, but rounds
       halfway cases away from zero (instead of to the nearest even integer).
       Overflow is impossible.

       Returns:
           The rounded value. If __x is an integral or infinite, __x itself is
           returned. If __x is NaN, then NaN is returned.

   int signbit (double__x)
       The signbit() function returns a nonzero value if the value of __x has
       its sign bit set. This is not the same as `__x < 0.0', because IEEE 754
       floating point allows zero to be signed. The comparison `-0.0 < 0.0' is
       false, but `signbit (-0.0)' will return a nonzero value.

   double sin (double__x)
       The sin() function returns the sine of __x, measured in radians.

   double sinh (double__x)
       The sinh() function returns the hyperbolic sine of __x.

   double sqrt (double__x)
       The sqrt() function returns the non-negative square root of __x.

   double square (double__x)
       The function square() returns __x * __x.

       Note:
           This function does not belong to the C standard definition.

   double tan (double__x)
       The tan() function returns the tangent of __x, measured in radians.

   double tanh (double__x)
       The tanh() function returns the hyperbolic tangent of __x.

   double trunc (double__x)
       The trunc() function rounds __x to the nearest integer not larger in
       absolute value.

Author

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