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       stdarg, va_start, va_arg, va_end, va_copy - variable argument lists


       #include <stdarg.h>

       void va_start(va_list ap, last);
       type va_arg(va_list ap, type);
       void va_end(va_list ap);
       void va_copy(va_list dest, va_list src);


       A  function may be called with a varying number of arguments of varying
       types.  The include file <stdarg.h> declares a type va_list and defines
       three  macros for stepping through a list of arguments whose number and
       types are not known to the called function.

       The called function must declare an object of  type  va_list  which  is
       used by the macros va_start(), va_arg(), and va_end().

       The  va_start() macro initializes ap for subsequent use by va_arg() and
       va_end(), and must be called first.

       The argument last is the name of the last argument before the  variable
       argument list, that is, the last argument of which the calling function
       knows the type.

       Because the address of this argument may  be  used  in  the  va_start()
       macro,  it  should  not  be  declared  as  a register variable, or as a
       function or an array type.

       The va_arg() macro expands to an expression that has the type and value
       of  the  next  argument in the call.  The argument ap is the va_list ap
       initialized by va_start().  Each call to va_arg() modifies ap  so  that
       the  next  call returns the next argument.  The argument type is a type
       name specified so that the type of a pointer to an object that has  the
       specified type can be obtained simply by adding a * to type.

       The  first use of the va_arg() macro after that of the va_start() macro
       returns the argument after last.   Successive  invocations  return  the
       values of the remaining arguments.

       If  there  is  no  next argument, or if type is not compatible with the
       type of the actual next argument (as promoted according to the  default
       argument promotions), random errors will occur.

       If ap is passed to a function that uses va_arg(ap,type), then the value
       of ap is undefined after the return of that function.

       Each invocation of  va_start()  must  be  matched  by  a  corresponding
       invocation of va_end() in the same function.  After the call va_end(ap)
       the variable ap is undefined.  Multiple traversals of  the  list,  each
       bracketed  by  va_start() and va_end() are possible.  va_end() may be a
       macro or a function.

       The  va_copy()  macro  copies  the  (previously  initialized)  variable
       argument  list  src  to  dest.   The  behavior is as if va_start() were
       applied to dest with the same  last  argument,  followed  by  the  same
       number of va_arg() invocations that was used to reach the current state
       of src.

       An obvious implementation would have a va_list  be  a  pointer  to  the
       stack frame of the variadic function.  In such a setup (by far the most
       common) there seems nothing against an assignment

           va_list aq = ap;

       Unfortunately, there are also systems that make it an array of pointers
       (of length 1), and there one needs

           va_list aq;
           *aq = *ap;

       Finally,  on systems where arguments are passed in registers, it may be
       necessary for va_start() to allocate memory, store the arguments there,
       and  also an indication of which argument is next, so that va_arg() can
       step through the list.  Now va_end()  can  free  the  allocated  memory
       again.   To  accommodate this situation, C99 adds a macro va_copy(), so
       that the above assignment can be replaced by

           va_list aq;
           va_copy(aq, ap);

       Each invocation  of  va_copy()  must  be  matched  by  a  corresponding
       invocation  of va_end() in the same function.  Some systems that do not
       supply va_copy() have __va_copy instead, since that was the  name  used
       in the draft proposal.


   Multithreading (see pthreads(7))
       The  va_start(),  va_arg(),  va_end(), and va_copy() macros are thread-


       The va_start(), va_arg(), and va_end()  macros  conform  to  C89.   C99
       defines the va_copy() macro.


       These  macros are not compatible with the historic macros they replace.
       A  backward-compatible  version  can  be  found  in  the  include  file

       The historic setup is:

           #include <varargs.h>

               va_list ap;

               while (...) {
                   x = va_arg(ap, type);

       On  some  systems,  va_end  contains  a  closing  '}' matching a '{' in
       va_start, so that both macros must occur in the same function, and in a
       way that allows this.


       Unlike  the varargs macros, the stdarg macros do not permit programmers
       to code a function with no fixed  arguments.   This  problem  generates
       work  mainly  when  converting varargs code to stdarg code, but it also
       creates difficulties for variadic functions that wish to  pass  all  of
       their arguments on to a function that takes a va_list argument, such as


       The function foo takes a string of format characters and prints out the
       argument associated with each format character based on the type.

       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdarg.h>

       foo(char *fmt, ...)
           va_list ap;
           int d;
           char c, *s;

           va_start(ap, fmt);
           while (*fmt)
               switch (*fmt++) {
               case 's':              /* string */
                   s = va_arg(ap, char *);
                   printf("string %s
", s);
               case 'd':              /* int */
                   d = va_arg(ap, int);
                   printf("int %d
", d);
               case 'c':              /* char */
                   /* need a cast here since va_arg only
                      takes fully promoted types */
                   c = (char) va_arg(ap, int);
                   printf("char %c
", c);


       This  page  is  part of release 3.65 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at

                                  2013-12-10                         STDARG(3)

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