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NAME

       locale - description of multilanguage support

SYNOPSIS

       #include <locale.h>

DESCRIPTION

       A  locale is a set of language and cultural rules.  These cover aspects
       such as language for messages, different character sets,  lexicographic
       conventions,  and  so  on.  A program needs to be able to determine its
       locale and act accordingly to be portable to different cultures.

       The header <locale.h> declares data types, functions and  macros  which
       are useful in this task.

       The  functions  it declares are setlocale(3) to set the current locale,
       and localeconv(3) to get information about number formatting.

       There are different categories for locale information a  program  might
       need; they are declared as macros.  Using them as the first argument to
       the setlocale(3) function, it is possible to set one of  these  to  the
       desired locale:

       LC_ADDRESS (GNU extension, since glibc 2.2)
              Change   settings   that  describe  the  formats  (e.g.,  postal
              addresses) used  to  describe  locations  and  geography-related
              items.    Applications   that  need  this  information  can  use
              nl_langinfo(3)  to  retrieve  nonstandard  elements,   such   as
              _NL_ADDRESS_COUNTRY_NAME  (country  name, in the language of the
              locale)  and  _NL_ADDRESS_LANG_NAME  (language  name,   in   the
              language   of   the   locale),  which  return  strings  such  as
              "Deutschland"  and  "Deutsch"  (for  German-language   locales).
              (Other element names are listed in <langinfo.h>.)

       LC_COLLATE
              This  is used to change the behavior of the functions strcoll(3)
              and strxfrm(3), which are used to compare strings in  the  local
              alphabet.  For example, the German sharp s is sorted as "ss".

       LC_CTYPE
              This   changes  the  behavior  of  the  character  handling  and
              classification functions, such as isupper(3) and toupper(3), and
              the multibyte character functions such as mblen(3) or wctomb(3).

       LC_IDENTIFICATION (GNU extension, since glibc 2.2)
              Change  settings  that  relate  to  the metadata for the locale.
              Applications that need this information can  use  nl_langinfo(3)
              to      retrieve      nonstandard      elements,     such     as
              _NL_IDENTIFICATION_TITLE (title of  this  locale  document)  and
              _NL_IDENTIFICATION_TERRITORY  (geographical  territory  to which
              this locale document applies), which might return  strings  such
              as "English locale for the USA" and "USA".  (Other element names
              are listed in <langinfo.h>.)

       LC_MONETARY
              This changes the information  returned  by  localeconv(3)  which
              describes the way numbers are usually printed, with details such
              as decimal point versus  decimal  comma.   This  information  is
              internally used by the function strfmon(3).

       LC_MESSAGES
              This  changes the language messages are displayed in and what an
              affirmative or negative answer looks like.   The  GNU  C-library
              contains  the  gettext(3), ngettext(3), and rpmatch(3) functions
              to ease the use of this information.  The GNU gettext family  of
              functions   also   obey   the   environment   variable  LANGUAGE
              (containing a colon-separated list of locales) if  the  category
              is set to a valid locale other than "C".

       LC_MEASUREMENT (GNU extension, since glibc 2.2)
              Change  the  settings  relating to the measurement system in the
              locale (i.e., metric versus US customary  units).   Applications
              can    use    nl_langinfo(3)   to   retrieve   the   nonstandard
              _NL_MEASUREMENT_MEASUREMENT element, which returns a pointer  to
              a  character  that  has  the value 1 (metric) or 2 (US customary
              units).

       LC_NAME (GNU extension, since glibc 2.2)
              Change settings  that  describe  the  formats  used  to  address
              persons.   Applications  that  need  this  information  can  use
              nl_langinfo(3)  to  retrieve  nonstandard  elements,   such   as
              _NL_NAME_NAME_MR    (general    salutation    for    men)    and
              _NL_NAME_NAME_MS (general salutation for women) elements,  which
              return  strings  such  as "Herr" and "Frau" (for German-language
              locales).  (Other element names are listed in <langinfo.h>.)

       LC_NUMERIC
              This changes the information used by the printf(3) and  scanf(3)
              family  of  functions,  when  they are advised to use the locale
              settings.   This  information  can  also  be   read   with   the
              localeconv(3) function.

       LC_PAPER (GNU extension, since glibc 2.2)
              Change  the  settings relating to the dimensions of the standard
              paper size (e.g., US letter versus A4).  Applications that  need
              the  dimensions  can  obtain  them  by  using  nl_langinfo(3) to
              retrieve the nonstandard  _NL_PAPER_WIDTH  and  _NL_PAPER_HEIGHT
              elements,  which  return int values specifying the dimensions in
              millimeters.

       LC_TELEPHONE (GNU extension, since glibc 2.2)
              Change settings that  describe  the  formats  to  be  used  with
              telephone services.  Applications that need this information can
              use nl_langinfo(3) to retrieve  nonstandard  elements,  such  as
              _NL_TELEPHONE_INT_PREFIX  (international  prefix  used  to  call
              numbers in this locale), which returns a  string  such  as  "49"
              (for   Germany).    (Other   element   names   are   listed   in
              <langinfo.h>.)

       LC_TIME
              This changes the behavior of the strftime(3) function to display
              the current time in a locally acceptable form; for example, most
              of Europe uses a 24-hour clock versus the 12-hour clock used  in
              the United States.

       LC_ALL All of the above.

       If  the second argument to setlocale(3) is an empty string, "", for the
       default locale, it is determined using the following steps:

       1.     If there is a non-null environment variable LC_ALL, the value of
              LC_ALL is used.

       2.     If  an  environment  variable  with  the same name as one of the
              categories above exists and is non-null, its value is  used  for
              that category.

       3.     If  there  is a non-null environment variable LANG, the value of
              LANG is used.

       Values about local numeric formatting is made  available  in  a  struct
       lconv  returned  by the localeconv(3) function, which has the following
       declaration:

         struct lconv {

             /* Numeric (nonmonetary) information */

             char *decimal_point;     /* Radix character */
             char *thousands_sep;     /* Separator for digit groups to left
                                         of radix character */
             char *grouping; /* Each element is the number of digits in a
                                group; elements with higher indices are
                                further left.  An element with value CHAR_MAX
                                means that no further grouping is done.  An
                                element with value 0 means that the previous
                                element is used for all groups further left. */

             /* Remaining fields are for monetary information */

             char *int_curr_symbol;   /* First three chars are a currency symbol
                                         from ISO 4217.  Fourth char is the
                                         separator.  Fifth char is ''. */
             char *currency_symbol;   /* Local currency symbol */
             char *mon_decimal_point; /* Radix character */
             char *mon_thousands_sep; /* Like thousands_sep above */
             char *mon_grouping;      /* Like grouping above */
             char *positive_sign;     /* Sign for positive values */
             char *negative_sign;     /* Sign for negative values */
             char  int_frac_digits;   /* International fractional digits */
             char  frac_digits;       /* Local fractional digits */
             char  p_cs_precedes;     /* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a
                                         positive value, 0 if succeeds */
             char  p_sep_by_space;    /* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol
                                         from a positive value */
             char  n_cs_precedes;     /* 1 if currency_symbol precedes a
                                         negative value, 0 if succeeds */
             char  n_sep_by_space;    /* 1 if a space separates currency_symbol
                                         from a negative value */
             /* Positive and negative sign positions:
                0 Parentheses surround the quantity and currency_symbol.
                1 The sign string precedes the quantity and currency_symbol.
                2 The sign string succeeds the quantity and currency_symbol.
                3 The sign string immediately precedes the currency_symbol.
                4 The sign string immediately succeeds the currency_symbol. */
             char  p_sign_posn;
             char  n_sign_posn;
         };

   POSIX.1-2008 extensions to the locale API
       POSIX.1-2008 standardized a number of extensions  to  the  locale  API,
       based  on implementations that first appeared in version 2.3 of the GNU
       C library.  These extensions are designed to address the  problem  that
       the  traditional  locale  APIs  do  not  mix  well  with  multithreaded
       applications  and  with  applications  that  must  deal  with  multiple
       locales.

       The  extensions  take  the  form  of  new  functions  for  creating and
       manipulating locale objects (newlocale(3), freelocale(3), duplocale(3),
       and  uselocale(3))  and  various  new library functions with the suffix
       "_l" (e.g., toupper_l(3)) that extend the traditional  locale-dependent
       APIs  (e.g.,  toupper(3)) to allow the specification of a locale object
       that should apply when executing the function.

CONFORMING TO

       POSIX.1-2001.

SEE ALSO

       locale(1),   localedef(1),   catopen(3),   gettext(3),   localeconv(3),
       mbstowcs(3),  newlocale(3),  ngettext(3),  nl_langinfo(3),  rpmatch(3),
       setlocale(3),   strcoll(3),   strfmon(3),   strftime(3),    strxfrm(3),
       uselocale(3), wcstombs(3), locale(5)

COLOPHON

       This  page  is  part of release 3.65 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.



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