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       systemd.time - Time and date specifications


       In systemd, timestamps, time spans, and calendar events are displayed
       and may be specified in closely related syntaxes.


       Time spans refer to time durations. On display, systemd will present
       time spans as a space-separated series of time values each suffixed by
       a time unit.

           2h 30min

       All specified time values are meant to be added up. The above hence
       refers to 150 minutes.


       When parsing, systemd will accept the same time span syntax. Separating
       spaces may be omitted. The following time units are understood:

       ·   usec, us

       ·   msec, ms

       ·   seconds, second, sec, s

       ·   minutes, minute, min, m

       ·   hours, hour, hr, h

       ·   days, day, d

       ·   weeks, week, w

       ·   months, month

       ·   years, year, y

       If no time unit is specified, generally seconds are assumed, but some
       exceptions exist and are marked as such. In a few cases "ns", "nsec" is
       accepted too, where the granularity of the time span allows for this.

       Examples for valid time span specifications:

           2 h
           1y 12month
           300ms20s 5day


       Timestamps refer to specific, unique points in time. On display,
       systemd will format these in the local timezone as follows:

           Fri 2012-11-23 23:02:15 CET

       The weekday is printed according to the locale choice of the user.


       When parsing systemd will accept a similar timestamp syntax, but
       excluding any timezone specification (this limitation might be removed
       eventually). The weekday specification is optional, but when the
       weekday is specified it must either be in the abbreviated ("Wed") or
       non-abbreviated ("Wednesday") English language form (case does not
       matter), and is not subject to the locale choice of the user. Either
       the date, or the time part may be omitted, in which case the current
       date or 00:00:00, resp., is assumed. The seconds component of the time
       may also be omitted, in which case ":00" is assumed. Year numbers may
       be specified in full or may be abbreviated (omitting the century).

       A timestamp is considered invalid if a weekday is specified and the
       date does not actually match the specified day of the week.

       When parsing, systemd will also accept a few special placeholders
       instead of timestamps: "now" may be used to refer to the current time
       (or of the invocation of the command that is currently executed).
       "today", "yesterday", "tomorrow" refer to 00:00:00 of the current day,
       the day before or the next day, respectively.

       When parsing, systemd will also accept relative time specifications. A
       time span (see above) that is prefixed with "+" is evaluated to the
       current time plus the specified time span. Correspondingly, a time span
       that is prefixed with "-" is evaluated to the current time minus the
       specified time span. Instead of prefixing the time span with "-", it
       may also be suffixed with a space and the word "ago".

       Examples for valid timestamps and their normalized form (assuming the
       current time was 2012-11-23 18:15:22):

           Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13
               2012-11-23 11:12:13 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13
                        2012-11-23 → Fri 2012-11-23 00:00:00
                          12-11-23 → Fri 2012-11-23 00:00:00
                          11:12:13 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:13
                             11:12 → Fri 2012-11-23 11:12:00
                               now → Fri 2012-11-23 18:15:22
                             today → Fri 2012-11-23 00:00:00
                         yesterday → Fri 2012-11-22 00:00:00
                          tomorrow → Fri 2012-11-24 00:00:00
                          +3h30min → Fri 2012-11-23 21:45:22
                               -5s → Fri 2012-11-23 18:15:17
                         11min ago → Fri 2012-11-23 18:04:22

       Note that timestamps printed by systemd will not be parsed correctly by
       systemd, as the timezone specification is not accepted, and printing
       timestamps is subject to locale settings for the weekday while parsing
       only accepts English weekday names.

       In some cases, systemd will display a relative timestamp (relative to
       the current time, or the time of invocation of the command) instead or
       in addition to an absolute timestamp as described above. A relative
       timestamp is formatted as follows:

       2 months 5 days ago

       Note that any relative timestamp will also parse correctly where a
       timestamp is expected. (see above)


       Calendar events may be used to refer to one or more points in time in a
       single expression. They form a superset of the absolute timestamps
       explained above:

           Thu,Fri 2012-*-1,5 11:12:13

       The above refers to 11:12:13 of the first or fifth day of any month of
       the year 2012, given that it is a Thursday or Friday.

       The weekday specification is optional. If specified, it should consist
       of one or more English language weekday names, either in the
       abbreviated (Wed) or non-abbreviated (Wednesday) form (case does not
       matter), separated by commas. Specifying two weekdays separated by "-"
       refers to a range of continuous weekdays.  "," and "-" may be combined

       In the date and time specifications, any component may be specified as
       "*" in which case any value will match. Alternatively, each component
       can be specified as a list of values separated by commas. Values may
       also be suffixed with "/" and a repetition value, which indicates that
       the value and all values plus multiples of the repetition value are

       Either time or date specification may be omitted, in which case the
       current day and 00:00:00 is implied, respectively. If the second
       component is not specified, ":00" is assumed.

       Timezone names may not be specified.

       The special expressions "hourly", "daily", "monthly" and "weekly" may
       be used as calendar events which refer to "*-*-* *:00:00", "*-*-*
       00:00:00", "*-*-01 00:00:00" and "Mon *-*-* 00:00:00", respectively.

       Examples for valid timestamps and their normalized form:

              Sat,Thu,Mon-Wed,Sat-Sun → Mon-Thu,Sat,Sun *-*-* 00:00:00
                Mon,Sun 12-*-* 2,1:23 → Mon,Sun 2012-*-* 01,02:23:00
                              Wed *-1 → Wed *-*-01 00:00:00
                      Wed-Wed,Wed *-1 → Wed *-*-01 00:00:00
                           Wed, 17:48 → Wed *-*-* 17:48:00
           Wed-Sat,Tue 12-10-15 1:2:3 → Tue-Sat 2012-10-15 01:02:03
                          *-*-7 0:0:0 → *-*-07 00:00:00
                                10-15 → *-10-15 00:00:00
                  monday *-12-* 17:00 → Mon *-12-* 17:00:00
            Mon,Fri *-*-3,1,2 *:30:45 → Mon,Fri *-*-01,02,03 *:30:45
                 12,14,13,12:20,10,30 → *-*-* 12,13,14:10,20,30:00
            mon,fri *-1/2-1,3 *:30:45 → Mon,Fri *-01/2-01,03 *:30:45
                       03-05 08:05:40 → *-03-05 08:05:40
                             08:05:40 → *-*-* 08:05:40
                                05:40 → *-*-* 05:40:00
               Sat,Sun 12-05 08:05:40 → Sat,Sun *-12-05 08:05:40
                     Sat,Sun 08:05:40 → Sat,Sun *-*-* 08:05:40
                     2003-03-05 05:40 → 2003-03-05 05:40:00
                           2003-03-05 → 2003-03-05 00:00:00
                                03-05 → *-03-05 00:00:00
                               hourly → *-*-* *:00:00
                                daily → *-*-* 00:00:00
                              monthly → *-*-01 00:00:00
                               weekly → Mon *-*-* 00:00:00
                                *:2/3 → *-*-* *:02/3:00

       Calendar events are used by timer units, see systemd.timer(5) for


       systemd(1), journalctl(1), systemd.timer(5), systemd.unit(5),

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