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       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver


       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point


       ntfs-3g  is  an  NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard links, and streams;  it  can  read  and  write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic  links,  devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover  it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes in two variants ntfs-3g and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be mounted can be either a block device or an image file.

   Windows hibernation and fast restarting
       On  computers  which  can be dual-booted into Windows or Linux, Windows
       has to be fully shut down before booting into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal disks may be left in an inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So, Windows may not be left in  hibernation  when  starting  Linux,  in
       order  to  avoid  inconsistencies.  Moreover,  the fast restart feature
       available on recent Windows systems has to be  disabled.  This  can  be
       achieved  by  issuing  as  an  Administrator  the Windows command which
       disables both hibernation and fast restarting :

              powercfg /h off

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective  user  and
       group  of  the  mounting  process,  and everybody has full read, write,
       execution and directory browsing  permissions.   You  can  also  assign
       permissions  to  a  single user by using the uid and/or the gid options
       together with the umask, or fmask and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have  full  access  to  the  files  created  by

       But,  by  setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full
       ownership and permissions features as defined by  POSIX.  Moreover,  by
       defining   a   Windows-to-Linux   user   mapping,  the  ownerships  and
       permissions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able  to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS, Win32 and POSIX. While
       the ntfs-3g driver handles all of them, it always creates new files  in
       the  POSIX  namespace  for  maximum  portability  and  interoperability
       reasons.   This  means  that  filenames  are  case  sensitive  and  all
       characters  are allowed except '/' and ''. This is perfectly legal on
       Windows,  though  some  application  may  get  confused.   The   option
       windows_names  may  be  used  to apply Windows restrictions to new file

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS stores all data in streams. Every file  has  exactly  one  unnamed
       data  stream  and can have many named data streams.  The size of a file
       is the size of its unnamed data stream.  By default, ntfs-3g will  only
       read the unnamed data stream.

       By  using  the  options  "streams_interface=windows",  with the ntfs-3g
       driver (not possible with lowntfs-3g), you will be  able  to  read  any
       named  data  streams,  simply  by  specifying the stream's name after a
       colon.  For example:

              cat some.mp3:artist

       Named data streams act like normal files, so you can  read  from  them,
       write  to  them  and even delete them (using rm).  You can list all the
       named data streams  a  file  has  by  getting  the  "ntfs.streams.list"
       extended attribute.


       Below is a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
              Set the owner and the group of files and directories. The values
              are numerical.  The defaults are the uid and gid of the  current

              Set  the  bitmask of the file and directory permissions that are
              not present. The value is given in octal. The default value is 0
              which means full access to everybody.

              Set  the   bitmask of the file permissions that are not present.
              The value is given in octal. The default value is 0 which  means
              full access to everybody.

              Set  the   bitmask  of  the  directory  permissions that are not
              present. The value is given in octal. The  default  value  is  0
              which means full access to everybody.

              Use  file  file-name  as  the  user  mapping file instead of the
              default .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If file-name defines a full  path,
              the  file  must be located on a partition previously mounted. If
              it defines a relative path, it is interpreted  relative  to  the
              root of NTFS partition being mounted.

              When  a  user  mapping  file is defined, the options uid=, gid=,
              umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent are ignored.

              Set standard permissions  on  created  files  and  use  standard
              access  control.   This  option  is  set  by default when a user
              mapping file is present.

       acl    Enable setting Posix ACLs on created  files  and  use  them  for
              access  control.   This  option  is  only  available on specific
              builds. It is set by default when a user mapping file is present
              and the permissions mount option is not set.

              When  creating a new file, set its initial protections according
              to inheritance rules defined in parent  directory.  These  rules
              deviate  from  Posix  specifications, but yield a better Windows
              compatibility. The compression option or a  valid  user  mapping
              file is required for this option to be effective.

       ro     Mount  filesystem  read-only. Useful if Windows is hibernated or
              the NTFS journal file is unclean.

              This option can be  useful  when  wanting  a  language  specific
              locale  environment.   It  is however discouraged as it leads to
              files with untranslatable chars to not be visible.

       force  This option is obsolete. It has been superseded by  the  recover
              and norecover options.

              Recover  and  try  to  mount a partition which was not unmounted
              properly by Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared,  which  may
              cause inconsistencies.  Currently this is the default option.

              Do not try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly
              by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
              Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO, Foo, foo, etc.
              designate  the  same  file).  All files are displayed with lower
              case in directory listings.

              Unlike in case of  read-only  mount,  the  read-write  mount  is
              denied  if  the  NTFS  volume is hibernated. One needs either to
              resume Windows and shutdown it  properly,  or  use  this  option
              which  will  remove  the  Windows hibernation file. Please note,
              this means that the saved Windows  session  will  be  completely
              lost. Use this option under your own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
              The atime option updates inode access time for each access.

              The  noatime option disables inode access time updates which can
              speed up file operations and prevent sleeping  (notebook)  disks
              spinning up too often thus saving energy and disk lifetime.

              The  relatime  option  is  very  similar to noatime.  It updates
              inode access times relative  to  modify  or  change  time.   The
              access  time  is  only  updated  if the previous access time was
              earlier than the current modify or change time.  Unlike  noatime
              this  option  doesn't  break applications that need to know if a
              file has been read since the last time it was modified.  This is
              the default behaviour.

       delay_mtime[= value]
              Only  update the file modification time and the file change time
              of a file when it is closed or when the  indicated  delay  since
              the  previous  update  has  elapsed. The argument is a number of
              seconds, with a default value of 60.  This is mainly useful  for
              big  files  which  are  kept open for a long time and written to
              without changing their size, such as databases  or  file  system
              images mounted as loop.

              Show  the metafiles in directory listings. Otherwise the default
              behaviour is to hide the metafiles, which are special files used
              to  store  the  NTFS  structure. Please note that even when this
              option is specified, "$MFT" may not be visible due  to  a  glibc
              bug.  Furthermore,  irrespectively  of show_sys_files, all files
              are accessible by name, for example you can  always  do  "ls  -l

              Hide the hidden files and directories in directory listings, the
              hidden files and directories being the ones whose NTFS attribute
              have the hidden flag set.  The hidden files will not be selected
              when using wildcards in commands, but all files and  directories
              remain  accessible  by  full  name,  for  example you can always
              display  the  Windows  trash  bin  directory  by   :   "ls   -ld

              Set  the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute for created files and
              directories whose first character of the name  is  a  dot.  Such
              files  and  directories  normally  do  not  appear  in directory
              listings, and when the flag is set they do not appear in Windows
              directory  displays  either.   When  a file is renamed or linked
              with a new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

              This option prevents files, directories and extended  attributes
              to be created with a name not allowed by windows, either because
              it contains some not  allowed  character  (which  are  the  nine
              characters  "  * / : < > ? \ | and those whose code is less than
              0x20) or because the  last  character  is  a  space  or  a  dot.
              Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

              This  option  overrides  the  security  measure restricting file
              access to the user mounting the filesystem. This option is  only
              allowed  to  root, but this restriction can be overridden by the
              'user_allow_other' option in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

              With this option the maximum size of read operations can be set.
              The default is infinite.  Note that the size of read requests is
              limited anyway to 32 pages (which is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do nothing, without returning any  error,  on  chmod  and  chown
              operations,  when  the permissions option is not set and no user
              mapping file is defined. This option is on by default.

              By default ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore errors  on  chmod
              and  chown),  "allow_other" (allow any user to access files) and
              "nonempty" (allow mounting on non-empty directories)  were  set,
              and "no_def_opts" cancels these default options.

              This  option  controls  how  the  user can access Alternate Data
              Streams (ADS) or in other words, named data streams. It  can  be
              set  to,  one of none, windows or xattr. If the option is set to
              none, the user will have no access to the named data streams. If
              it  is  set  to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g), then the
              user can access them just like in Windows (eg. cat file:stream).
              If  it's set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped to
              xattrs  and  user  can  manipulate  them  using   {get,set}fattr
              utilities. The default is xattr.

              Same as streams_interface=xattr.

              This  option should only be used in backup or restore situation.
              It changes the apparent size of files and the behavior  of  read
              and  write  operation  so  that encrypted files can be saved and
              restored without being decrypted. The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended
              attribute  has  also to be saved and restored for the file to be

              This option enables creating new transparently compressed  files
              in directories marked for compression. A directory is marked for
              compression by setting the bit  11  (value  0x00000800)  in  its
              Windows  attribute.  In  such a directory, new files are created
              compressed and new  subdirectories  are  themselves  marked  for
              compression.  The option and the flag have no effect on existing

              This option disables creating new transparently compressed files
              in directories marked for compression. Existing compressed files
              can still be read and updated. Currently  this  is  the  default

              This  option  prevents fuse from splitting write buffers into 4K
              chunks, enabling big write buffers to be  transferred  from  the
              application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
              128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from libntfs-3g and

              Makes  ntfs-3g  to not detach from terminal and print some debug


       NTFS uses specific ids to record the ownership of files instead of  the
       uid  and  gid used by Linux. As a consequence a mapping between the ids
       has to  be  defined  for  ownerships  to  be  recorded  into  NTFS  and

       By  default, this mapping is fetched from the file .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located in the NTFS partition. The option usermapping= may be  used  to
       define  another  location.  When  the  option permissions is set and no
       mapping file is found, a default mapping is used.

       Each line in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It  is  organized
       in  three fields separated by colons. The first field identifies a uid,
       the second field identifies a gid and  the  third  one  identifies  the
       corresponding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the gid are optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If no interoperation with Windows is needed, you  can  use  the  option
       permissions  to  define a standard mapping. Alternately, you may define
       your own mapping by setting a single default mapping with  no  uid  and
       gid.  In  both  cases, files created on Linux will appear to Windows as
       owned by a foreign user, and files created on Windows  will  appear  to
       Linux  as  owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace the 9
       and 10-digit numbers by any number not  greater  than  4294967295.  The
       resulting  behavior  is  the same as the one with the option permission
       set with no ownership option and no user mapping file available.


       If a strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the mapping  has  to
       be  defined  for each user and group known in both system, and the SIDs
       used by Windows has to be collected. This will lead to a  user  mapping
       file like :


       The utility ntfs-3g.usermap may be used to create such a  user  mapping


       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

              ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows
              mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount  the  ntfs  data  partition  /dev/sda3 to /mnt/data with standard
       Linux permissions applied :

              ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
              mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

              ntfs-3g /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry for the above (the sixth and last field has to be zero
       to avoid a file system check at boot time) :

              /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

              umount /mnt/windows


       To facilitate the use of the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned  to give an indication of the mountability status of a volume.
       Value 0 means success, and all other ones mean  an  error.  The  unique
       error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.


       Please see


       for  common questions and known issues.  If you would find a new one in
       the latest release of the software then please send an email describing
       it   in   detail.   You   can  contact  the  development  team  on  the address.


       ntfs-3g was based on and a major improvement to ntfsmount  and  libntfs
       which  were  written  by  Yura  Pakhuchiy  and the Linux-NTFS team. The
       improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated and currently
       led   by  long  time  Linux-NTFS  team  developer  Szabolcs  Szakacsits


       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted   the   ntfs-3g   driver.  Most  importantly  they  are  Anton
       Altaparmakov, Jean-Pierre André, Richard Russon,  Szabolcs  Szakacsits,
       Yura Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the author of the groundbreaking FUSE
       filesystem development framework, Miklos Szeredi.


       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5), getfattr(1)

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