oping - send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
oping [-4 | -6] [-c count] [-i interval] host [host [host ...]]
oping [-4 | -6] [-c count] [-i interval] -f filename
noping [-4 | -6] [-c count] [-i interval] host [host [host ...]]
noping [-4 | -6] [-c count] [-i interval] -f filename
oping uses ICMPv4 or ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST packets to measure a hosts
reachability and the network latency. In contrast to the original
ping(8) utility oping can send ICMP packets to multiple hosts in
parallel and wait for all ECHO_RESPONSE packets to arrive. In contrast
to the fping utility (URL is listed in "SEE ALSO") oping can use both,
IPv4 and IPv6 transparently and side by side.
noping is an ncurses-based front-end to liboping which displays ping
statistics online and highlights aberrant round-trip times if the
terminal supports colors.
-4 Force the use of IPv4.
-6 Force the use of IPv6.
Send (and receive) count ICMP packets, then stop and exit.
Send one ICMP packet (per host) each interval seconds. This can be
a floating-point number to specify sub-second precision.
Set the IP Time to Live to ttl. This must be a number between (and
including) 1 and 255. If omitted, the value 64 is used.
Set the source address to use. You may either specify an IP number
or a hostname. You cannot pass the interface name, as you can with
GNU's ping(8) - use the -D option for that purpose.
-D interface name
Set the outgoing network device to use.
Instead of specifying hostnames on the command line, read them from
filename. If filename is -, read from "STDIN".
If oping is installed with the SetUID-bit, it will set the
effective UID to the real UID before opening the file. In the
special (but common) case that oping is owned by the super-user
(UID 0), this means that privileges are temporarily dropped before
opening the file, in order to prevent users from reading arbitrary
files on the system.
If your system doesn't provide saved set-user IDs (this was an
optional feature before POSIX 2001), the behavior is different
because it is not possible to temporarily drop privileges. The
alternative behavior is: If the real user ID (as returned by
getuid(2)) and the effective user ID (as returned by geteuid(2))
differ, the only argument allowed for this option is "-" (i.e.
Specify the Quality of Service (QoS) for outgoing packets. This is
a somewhat tricky option, since the meaning of the bits in the IPv4
header has been revised several times.
The currently recommended method is Differentiated Services which
is used in IPv6 headers as well. There are shortcuts for various
predefined per-hop behaviors (PHBs):
be Selects the Best Effort behavior. This is the default behavior.
ef Selects the Expedited Forwarding (EF) per-hop behavior, as
defined in RFC 3246. This PHB is characterised by low delay,
low loss and low jitter, i.e. high priority traffic.
va Selects the Voice Admitted (VA) per-hop behavior, as defined in
RFC 5865. This traffic class is meant for Voice over IP (VoIP)
traffic which uses Call Admission Control (CAC) for reserving
Selects one of 12 differentiated services code points (DSCPs),
which are organized in four classes with three priorities each.
Therefore, c must be a number between 1 through 4 and p must be
a number between 1 through 3, for example "af13", "af22" and
"af41". In each class, the lower priority number takes
precedence over the higher priority number.
csn Selects one of the eight Class Selector PHBs. n is a number
between 0 through 7. The class selectors have been defined to
be compatible to the Precedence field in the IPv4 header as
defined in RFC 791. Please note that "cs0" is synonymous to
The old definition of the same bits in the IPv4 header was as Type
of Service (ToS) field, specified in RFC 1349. It defined four
possible values which have appropriate aliases. Please note that
this use of the bits is deprecated and the meaning is limited to
Minimize monetary cost
Alternatively, you can also specify the byte manually. You can use
either a decimal number (0-255), a hexadecimal number (0x00-0xff)
or an octal number (00-0377) using the usual "0x" and "0" prefixes
for hexadecimal and octal respectively.
The printed lines will contain information about the QoS field of
received packets if either a non-standard QoS setting was used on
outgoing packets or if the QoS byte of incoming packets is not
zero. In other words, the QoS information is omitted if both, the
outgoing and the incoming QoS bytes are zero. The received byte is
always interpreted as Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) and
Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), even if the deprecated Type
of Service (ToS) aliases were used to specify the bits of outgoing
If any hosts have a drop rate higher than percent, where percent is
a number between zero and 100 inclusively, exit with a non-zero
exit status. Since it is not possible to have a higher drop rate
than 100%, passing this limit will effectively disable the feature
(the default). Setting the option to zero means that the exit
status will only be zero if all replies for all hosts have been
The exit status will indicate the number of hosts with more than
percent packets lost, up to a number of 255 failing hosts.
noping only -u forces UTF-8 output, -U disables UTF-8 output. If
neither is given, the codeset is automatically determined from the
If supported by the terminal, noping will highlight the round-trip
times (RTT) using the colors green, yellow and red. Green signals RTTs
that are in the "expected" range, yellow marks moderately unusual times
and times that differ a lot from the expected value are printed in red.
The information used to categorize round-trip times is the average
round-trip time and the standard deviation. RTTs that differ from the
average by less than the standard deviation are considered to be
"normal" and are printed in green. Times that differ from the average
more than the standard deviation but less than twice the standard
deviation are considered "moderately unusual" and are printed in
yellow. Times differing more than twice the standard deviation from the
average are considered to be "unusual" and are printed in red.
ping(8), <http://www.fping.com/>, liboping(3)
liboping is written by Florian "octo" Forster <ff at octo.it>. Its
homepage can be found at <http://verplant.org/liboping/>.
Copyright (c) 2005-2011 by Florian "octo" Forster.