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       xfs_quota - manage use of quota on XFS filesystems


       xfs_quota  [  -x ] [ -p prog ] [ -c cmd ] ... [ -d project ] ... [ path
       ... ]
       xfs_quota -V


       xfs_quota is a utility for reporting and  editing  various  aspects  of
       filesystem quota.

       The options to xfs_quota are:

       -c cmd    xfs_quota  commands may be run interactively (the default) or
                 as arguments on the command line. Multiple -c  arguments  may
                 be  given.   The commands are run in the sequence given, then
                 the program exits.

       -p prog   Set the program name for prompts and some error messages, the
                 default value is xfs_quota.

       -x        Enable  expert mode.  All of the administrative commands (see
                 the  ADMINISTRATOR  COMMANDS  section  below)   which   allow
                 modifications  to  the  quota  system  are  available only in
                 expert mode.

       -d project
                 Project names or numeric identifiers may  be  specified  with
                 this  option,  which  restricts  the output of the individual
                 xfs_quota commands to the set of projects specified. Multiple
                 -d arguments may be given.

       -V        Prints the version number and exits.

       The  optional  path  argument(s) can be used to specify mount points or
       device  files  which  identify  XFS  filesystems.  The  output  of  the
       individual  xfs_quota  commands  will  then be restricted to the set of
       filesystems specified.

       This manual page is divided into two sections  -  firstly,  information
       for users of filesystems with quota enabled, and the xfs_quota commands
       of interest to such users; and then information which is useful only to
       administrators  of  XFS  filesystems using quota and the quota commands
       which allow modifications to the quota system.

       Note that common to almost all of  the  individual  commands  described
       below  are the options for specifying which quota types are of interest
       - user quota (-u), group quota (-g), and/or project quota (-p).   Also,
       several  commands  provide  options  to  operate on "blocks used" (-b),
       "inodes used" (-i), and/or "realtime blocks used" (-r).

       Many commands also have extensive online help. Use the help command for
       more details on any command.


       In  most computing environments, disk space is not infinite.  The quota
       subsystem provides a mechanism to control usage of disk space.   Quotas
       can   be  set  for  each  individual  user  on  any/all  of  the  local
       filesystems.  The quota subsystem warns users when  they  exceed  their
       allotted  limit,  but  allows  some  extra space for current work (hard
       limit/soft limit).  In addition, XFS filesystems with limit enforcement
       turned off can be used as an effective disk usage accounting system.

   Users' View of Disk Quotas
       To  most  users, disk quotas are either of no concern or a fact of life
       that cannot be avoided.  There are two  possible  quotas  that  can  be
       imposed  - a limit can be set on the amount of space a user can occupy,
       and there may be a limit on the number of files (inodes) he can own.

       The quota command provides information on the quotas that have been set
       by the system administrators and current usage.

       There  are  four  numbers  for  each  limit:  current usage, soft limit
       (quota), hard limit, and time limit.  The soft limit is the  number  of
       1K-blocks  (or  files)  that the user is expected to remain below.  The
       hard limit cannot be exceeded.  If a  user's  usage  reaches  the  hard
       limit,  further  requests for space (or attempts to create a file) fail
       with the "Quota exceeded" (EDQUOT) error.

       When a user exceeds the soft limit, the timer is enabled.  Any time the
       quota drops below the soft limits, the timer is disabled.  If the timer
       pops, the particular limit that has been exceeded is treated as if  the
       hard limit has been reached, and no more resources are allocated to the
       user.  The only way to reset this condition, short of turning off limit
       enforcement  or  increasing  the limit, is to reduce usage below quota.
       Only the superuser (i.e. a sufficiently capable process)  can  set  the
       time limits and this is done on a per filesystem basis.

   Surviving When the Quota Limit Is Reached
       In  most  cases,  the  only  way  for a user to recover from over-quota
       conditions is  to  abort  whatever  activity  is  in  progress  on  the
       filesystem that has reached its limit, remove sufficient files to bring
       the limit back below quota, and retry the failed program.
       However, if a user is in the editor and a write  fails  because  of  an
       over  quota  situation, that is not a suitable course of action.  It is
       most likely that initially attempting to write the file  has  truncated
       its  previous  contents,  so if the editor is aborted without correctly
       writing the file, not only are the recent changes  lost,  but  possibly
       much, or even all, of the contents that previously existed.
       There  are  several  possible  safe  exits  for  a  user caught in this
       situation.  He can use the editor shell escape command to  examine  his
       file  space  and  remove surplus files.  Alternatively, using sh(1), he
       can suspend the editor, remove some files, then  resume  it.   A  third
       possibility is to write the file to some other filesystem (perhaps to a
       file on /tmp) where the user's quota has not been exceeded.  Then after
       rectifying  the  quota  situation,  the  file  can be moved back to the
       filesystem it belongs on.


       print  Lists all paths with devices/project identifiers.  The path list
              can  come  from  several  places  -  the command line, the mount
              table, and the /etc/projects file.

       df     See the free command.

       quota [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [ -hnNv ] [ -f file ] [ ID | name ] ...
              Show individual usage and limits, for  a  single  user  name  or
              numeric  user  ID.   The -h option reports in a "human-readable"
              format similar to the df(1) command. The -n option  reports  the
              numeric  IDs  rather  than  the  name.  The  -N option omits the
              header. The -v option outputs verbose information. The -f option
              sends the output to file instead of stdout.

       free [ -bir ] [ -hN ] [ -f file ]
              Reports  filesystem  usage, much like the df(1) utility.  It can
              show usage for blocks, inode, and/or realtime block  space,  and
              shows  used, free, and total available.  If project quota are in
              use (see the DIRECTORY TREE QUOTA section below), it  will  also
              report  utilisation for those projects (directory trees). The -h
              option reports in a "human-readable" format. The -N option omits
              the  header. The -f option outputs the report to file instead of

       help [ command ]
              Online help for all commands, or one specific command.

       quit   Exit xfs_quota.

       q      See the quit command.


       The XFS quota system differs to that of other filesystems in  a  number
       of   ways.   Most  importantly,  XFS  considers  quota  information  as
       filesystem metadata and uses  journaling  to  provide  a  higher  level
       guarantee  of consistency.  As such, it is administered differently, in

       1.     The quotacheck command has no effect on  XFS  filesystems.   The
              first  time  quota  accounting is turned on (at mount time), XFS
              does an automatic quotacheck internally; afterwards,  the  quota
              system  will  always  be  completely consistent until quotas are
              manually turned off.

       2.     There is no need for quota  file(s)  in  the  root  of  the  XFS

       3.     XFS   distinguishes   between   quota   accounting   and   limit
              enforcement.  Quota accounting must be turned on at the time  of
              mounting  the  XFS  filesystem.  However, it is possible to turn
              on/off limit enforcement any time quota accounting is turned on.
              The  "quota"  option  to  the mount command turns on both (user)
              quota accounting and enforcement.  The "uqnoenforce" option must
              be  used  to  turn  on  user  accounting  with limit enforcement

       4.     Turning on quotas on the root filesystem is  slightly  different
              from  the above.  For IRIX XFS, refer to quotaon(1M).  For Linux
              XFS,  the  quota  mount  flags  must  be  passed  in  with   the
              "rootflags=" boot parameter.

       5.     It is useful to use the state to monitor the XFS quota subsystem
              at various stages - it can be used to see if quotas  are  turned
              on,  and  also to monitor the space occupied by the quota system

       6.     There is a mechanism built into xfsdump that allows quota  limit
              information  to  be  backed up for later restoration, should the
              need arise.

       7.     Quota limits cannot be set before turning on quotas on.

       8.     XFS filesystems keep quota accounting on the superuser (user  ID
              zero),   and   the  tool  will  display  the  superuser's  usage
              information.   However,  limits  are  never  enforced   on   the
              superuser (nor are they enforced for group and project ID zero).

       9.     XFS  filesystems  perform  quota accounting whether the user has
              quota limits or not.

       10.    XFS supports the notion of project quota, which can be  used  to
              implement  a  form  of  directory tree quota (i.e. to restrict a
              directory tree to only being able to use up a component  of  the
              filesystems  available  space;  or  simply  to keep track of the
              amount of space used, or number of inodes, within the tree).


       path [ N ]
              Lists all paths with  devices/project  identifiers  or  set  the
              current  path to the Nth list entry (the current path is used by
              many  of  the  commands  described  here,  it   identifies   the
              filesystem  toward which a command is directed).  The patch list
              can come from several places  -  the  command  line,  the  mount
              table, and the /etc/projects file.

       report [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [ -ahntLNU ] [ -f file ]
              Report  filesystem  quota  information.   This reports all quota
              usage for a filesystem, for  the  specified  quota  type  (u/g/p
              and/or  blocks/inodes/realtime).  It reports blocks in 1KB units
              by default. The -h option reports in a  "human-readable"  format
              similar  to  the df(1) command. The -f option outputs the report
              to file  instead  of  stdout.  The  -a  option  reports  on  all
              filesystems. The -n option outputs the numeric ID instead of the
              name. The -L and -U options specify lower and upper ID bounds to
              report  on. The -N option reports information without the header
              line. The -t option performs a terse report.

       state [ -gpu ] [ -av ] [ -f file ]
              Report overall quota state information.   This  reports  on  the
              state  of quota accounting, quota enforcement, and the number of
              extents being used by quota metadata within the filesystem.  The
              -f  option  outputs state information to file instead of stdout.
              The -a option reports state on all filesystems and not just  the
              current path.

       limit  [  -gpu  ]  bsoft=N  | bhard=N | isoft=N | ihard=N | rtbsoft=N |
              rtbhard=N -d | id | name
              Set  quota  block  limits  (bhard/bsoft),  inode  count   limits
              (ihard/isoft)  and/or  realtime  block limits (rtbhard/rtbsoft).
              The -d option (defaults) can be used to set  the  default  value
              that  will be used, otherwise a specific user/group/project name
              or numeric identifier must be specified.

       timer [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] value
              Allows the quota enforcement timeout (i.e. the  amount  of  time
              allowed  to pass before the soft limits are enforced as the hard
              limits) to be modified.  The  current  timeout  setting  can  be
              displayed  using  the  state  command.  The  value argument is a
              number of seconds, but units of 'minutes', 'hours', 'days',  and
              'weeks'  are  also  understood  (as are their abbreviations 'm',
              'h', 'd', and 'w').

       warn [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] value -d | id | name
              Allows the quota warnings limit (i.e.  the  number  of  times  a
              warning  will  be  send  to someone over quota) to be viewed and
              modified. The -d option  (defaults)  can  be  used  to  set  the
              default   time   that   will   be  used,  otherwise  a  specific
              user/group/project name or numeric identifier must be specified.
              NOTE: this feature is not currently implemented.

       enable [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
              Switches  on  quota enforcement for the filesystem identified by
              the current path.  This requires the  filesystem  to  have  been
              mounted  with  quota enabled, and for accounting to be currently
              active. The -v option (verbose) displays  the  state  after  the
              operation has completed.

       disable [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
              Disables  quota  enforcement,  while  leaving  quota  accounting
              active. The -v option (verbose) displays  the  state  after  the
              operation has completed.

       off [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
              Permanently  switches quota off for the filesystem identified by
              the  current  path.   Quota  can  only  be  switched   back   on
              subsequently by unmounting and then mounting again.

       remove [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
              Remove any space allocated to quota metadata from the filesystem
              identified by the current path.  Quota must not  be  enabled  on
              the filesystem, else this operation will report an error.

       dump [ -gpu ] [ -f file ]
              Dump out quota limit information for backup utilities, either to
              standard output (default) or  to  a  file.   This  is  only  the
              limits, not the usage information, of course.

       restore [ -gpu ] [ -f file ]
              Restore  quota  limits  from a backup file.  The file must be in
              the format produced by the dump command.

       quot [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [ -acnv ] [ -f file ]
              Summarize filesystem ownership, by user, group or project.  This
              command  uses a special XFS "bulkstat" interface to quickly scan
              an entire filesystem and report usage information.  This command
              can be used even when filesystem quota are not enabled, as it is
              a full-filesystem scan (it may also take a long time...). The -a
              option  displays  information  on all filesystems. The -c option
              displays a histogram instead of a report. The -n option displays
              numeric  IDs  rather  than names. The -v option displays verbose
              information. The -f option send the output to  file  instead  of

       project [ -cCs [ -d depth ] [ -p path ] id | name ]
              Without  arguments,  this  command lists known project names and
              identifiers  (based  on  entries  in   the   /etc/projects   and
              /etc/projid  files).  The  -c,  -C,  and  -s  options  allow the
              directory tree quota mechanism to be maintained.  -d  allows  to
              limit recursion level when processing project directories and -p
              allows to specify project paths at command  line  (  instead  of
              /etc/projects ). All options are discussed in detail below.


       The  project  quota mechanism in XFS can be used to implement a form of
       directory tree quota, where a specified directory and all of the  files
       and  subdirectories below it (i.e. a tree) can be restricted to using a
       subset of the available space in the filesystem.

       A managed tree must be setup initially  using  the  -s  option  to  the
       project command. The specified project name or identifier is matched to
       one or more trees defined in /etc/projects, and these  trees  are  then
       recursively descended to mark the affected inodes as being part of that
       tree.  This process sets an inode flag and the  project  identifier  on
       every  file  in  the affected tree.  Once this has been done, new files
       created in the tree will automatically be accounted to the  tree  based
       on  their  project  identifier.   An attempt to create a hard link to a
       file in the tree will only succeed if the  project  identifier  matches
       the project identifier for the tree.  The xfs_io utility can be used to
       set the project ID for an arbitrary file, but this can only be done  by
       a privileged user.

       A  previously  setup  tree  can  be  cleared from project quota control
       through use of the project -C option, which  will  recursively  descend
       the tree, clearing the affected inodes from project quota control.

       Finally,  the  project -c option can be used to check whether a tree is
       setup, it reports nothing if the tree is correct, otherwise it  reports
       the paths of inodes which do not have the project ID of the rest of the
       tree, or if the inode flag is not set.

       Option -d can be used to limit recursion level (-1 is  infinite,  0  is
       top  level only, 1 is first level ... ).  Option -p adds possibility to
       specify project paths in command line without a need for  /etc/projects
       to exist. Note that if projects file exists then it is also used.


       Enabling  quota  enforcement on an XFS filesystem (restrict a user to a
       set amount of space).

            # mount -o uquota /dev/xvm/home /home
            # xfs_quota -x -c 'limit bsoft=500m bhard=550m tanya' /home
            # xfs_quota -x -c report /home

       Enabling project quota on an XFS filesystem (restrict files in log file
       directories to only using 1 gigabyte of space).

            # mount -o prjquota /dev/xvm/var /var
            # echo 42:/var/log >> /etc/projects
            # echo logfiles:42 >> /etc/projid
            # xfs_quota -x -c 'project -s logfiles' /var
            # xfs_quota -x -c 'limit -p bhard=1g logfiles' /var

       Same as above without a need for configuration files.

            # rm -f /etc/projects /etc/projid
            # mount -o prjquota /dev/xvm/var /var
            # xfs_quota -x -c 'project -s -p /var/log 42' /var
            # xfs_quota -x -c 'limit -p bhard=1g 42' /var


       XFS implements delayed allocation (aka. allocate-on-flush) and this has
       implications for the quota subsystem.  Since quota accounting can  only
       be  done  when  blocks  are actually allocated, it is possible to issue
       (buffered) writes into  a  file  and  not  see  the  usage  immediately
       updated.  Only when the data is actually written out, either via one of
       the kernels flushing mechanisms, or via  a  manual  sync(2),  will  the
       usage reported reflect what has actually been written.

       In  addition,  the  XFS  allocation  mechanism  will always reserve the
       maximum amount of space required before proceeding with an  allocation.
       If  insufficient  space  for  this reservation is available, due to the
       block quota limit being reached for example, this  may  result  in  the
       allocation  failing  even  though  there  is  sufficient  space.  Quota
       enforcement can thus sometimes happen in situations where the  user  is
       under  quota and the end result of some operation would still have left
       the user under quota had the operation been allowed to run its  course.
       This additional overhead is typically in the range of tens of blocks.

       Both  of  these  properties are unavoidable side effects of the way XFS
       operates, so should be kept in mind when assigning block limits.


       Quota support for filesystems  with  realtime  subvolumes  is  not  yet
       implemented, nor is the quota warning mechanism (the Linux warnquota(8)
       tool can be used to provide similar functionality on that platform).


       /etc/projects       Mapping   of   numeric   project   identifiers   to
                           directories trees.
       /etc/projid         Mapping  of  numeric project identifiers to project


       quotaon(1M), xfs(4).


       warnquota(8), xfs(5).


       df(1), mount(1), sync(2), projid(5), projects(5).


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